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One Bad Apple: more about contents.

One Bad Apple features narration (by Frank Windsor) over relevant images from commercial food processing, graphics, high-magnification images of pests and bugs, captions and cartoons.

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Details:  (the script which follows is of course protected by copyright.)

1 - 7 programme title: ONE BAD APPLE ....

8 / Large food superstore. Customers browse around the many fresh and packaged foods on offer.

VOICE OVER:

        Whether we live to eat or eat to live, for those of us who work in the food business, food pays our wages.

9 / Customer leaves bread counter with large stick-loaf.

        But when we buy food, how do we know that it's safe to eat?

         

10 / Customers eyeing and selecting food.

        One thing is certain; we can't always tell just by appearances. Very often, contaminated food looks fine. The freshest, tastiest, healthiest- looking food could be poisoned by harmful bacteria, and we couldn't tell until we'd eaten it. Too late.

11 / VOX POPS HOSPITAL / FOOD POISONING VICTIMS

12 /

Customers browsing and buying fresh and packaged foods.

        Yet when we go out to buy food, we usually trust that if it looks all right, it is alright. We depend on our food suppliers.

        If the food we buy is contaminated, that trust is broken; trust in the restaurant, or the shop, or the food manufacturer.

        If contaminated food is allowed to leave the factory and finds its way into the shops, we're quite likely to buy it, and eat it; and perhaps get sick.

13 /  Fly or wasp crawls out of marmalade jar. Cigarette end revealed in loaf of bread. Other disgusting finds in food.

        And as customers, we're not very likely to make the same mistake twice.

        If we've had a bad experience with a particular type or make of food, we're often reluctant to buy the same again, and risk a repeat performance.

14 / Food production line: masses of packs coming off the line.

        But food businesses depend on repeat business for their prosperity; so for the people who work for food manufacturers, this can be disastrous.

15 / Rising trend of food poisoning; graphic to illustrate.

        It's a sad fact of modern British life that food poisoning is becoming ever more commonplace. The symptom range from mild discomfort, to extreme sickness; stomach cramps, vomiting, diarrhoea. Food poisoning is nasty.

16 /  Overlay cheery pictures of attractive typical "victims".

        Mostly, the victims survive; though for the sick, the elderly, the pregnant and unborn or the very young, the dangers are severe.

        On average, every week in Britain someone dies, just from something they ate. It shouldn't happen.

        As food handlers, it's up to each and every one of us to do all that we can to make sure that the products we supply are safe.

17 / Graphic; on a montage of still pictures of many types of food manufacturer, overlay Food Safety Act cover.

        And the law has severe penalties for companies and individuals who don't measure up.

17 A / Over graphic background, add details of fines, imprisonment, personal liability.

        No food business can afford to keep staff who don't do all they can to keep food safe.

        Our jobs, and the health of our customers, are at stake.

18 // Graphic; repeat of Bad Apple sequence.

        It only takes one sloppy worker, one person who can't be bothered to practise good food hygiene, to put everyone at risk.

        Your carelessness at any stage of food production can mean contaminated food - and a high risk of sick customers.

        So what are the main sources of danger?

19 / Overlay caption: CONTAMINATION

20 / Add: Pests.

        Animals, rodents, birds and insects are often a cause of problems on food premises, destroying or infecting food, and posing a serious risk to health.

21 /

Add Report any infestation.
Leave control to a specialist.

        The law says that pests must be controlled. Though usually that's best left to a specialist, it's important to be aware of the risks, and to know what to look out for.

22 / Views of birds feeding.

        Birds can carry disease on their feathers, feet, or droppings.

23 / View of bird-droppings on raw foods and food packages.

        If they get into a food area or building, they often contaminate food. They must be kept out.

24 / Show proofed opening, or window being firmly shut.

25 / Views of rats

        Rats often live in sewers, and get out through open drains to look for food.

 26 / Views of rat damage.

        They will eat almost anything, including electric cable, which can cause a serious fire hazard . They also eat wood, hardboard and of course any spilt food they can find.

        If you come across anything that looks like rat-damage, report it at once to your supervisor.

27 / Views of rat droppings.

        Droppings like these are another clear indication of rat infestation.

28 / Views of rat traps.

        Rats are creatures of habit, tending to follow familiar routes, or rat runs; so if you come across rat traps, leave them where they are.

29 /  Views of mice.

        Mice can get in almost anywhere, squeezing through openings barely an inch in diameter.

        They urinate as they run over food, nibbling first at one place then at another, ruining food and contaminating working surfaces in the process.

30 / Views of mouse damage.

        And they can breed extremely quickly. Any signs of mouse damage should be reported.

31 / Views of flies.

        Because flies are such a common nuisance, perhaps it's easy to forget just what a health hazard they are.

32 / Flies (or other insects) eating.

        Remember, flies and other insects vomit on our food to soften it up, then eat some, then excrete back onto the food surface, for us to enjoy later ... Their feet also often carry disease.

33 / Views of various insects.

        Sometimes insect larvae hatch in our food, leaving the shells behind when they emerge. Quite disgusting, and the shells are almost impossible for us to spot when preparing food at home.

34 /  Over a picture of an Insect-O-Cutor or similar device, add a graphic to suggest: Keep insects away from food

        If the food we supply is to be safe for our customers, it is important that we keep insects away from food areas.

35 /  Industrial insect and pest control products, featuring "hazardous substance" symbols.

        But don't try to get rid of them yourself. Eradicating insects from food areas safely is a job for a specialist, often involving toxic chemicals which, if wrongly used, could taint or contaminate the food.

        And after all, suppose you do use a spray yourself; where is the dead insect going to fall? In a food room, it's a risk you can't take.

36 / Reminders; recap views of telltale signs of pests.

        What you can do is be alert for signs of birds, insects, or vermin, and report them at once. And please, keep your eyes open.

        You can make sure, too, that food areas stay clean and hygienic, with no mess or spillages left around to attract pests.

         

37 / Cuddly dogs and cats / domestic setting.

        One final dangerous animal to watch out for is the loveable family pet.

        Even the cleanest of domestic animals normally carry harmful bacteria in their fur. If you have a pet, you are likely to be carrying hair and harmful microbes on your hands and on your clothes. You must make sure that these risks to food hygiene don't come with you to work.

        For food workers, a pet's place really is in the home.

38 /  Overlay caption: FOREIGN OBJECTS

        Apart from contamination from animals or other pests, foreign objects are another frequent problem.

39 / Child takes a swig from a lemonade bottle.

40 / Pour lemonade out of a (different) bottle into a glass.

        One notorious legal case involved a snail found at the bottom of a bottle of drink. Revolting.

        Not surprisingly, the court found against the food company; and the law has been made much tougher since those days.

41 / Views of various types of foreign objects in different types of food.

        It seems ridiculous, but even so every year a vast number of foreign objects are discovered in our food.

        Hairs, fingernails, false eyelashes, rings, earrings, nuts and bolts, feathers, biros, insects, cigarette ends ... You name it, some poor person has probably bitten into it. And hated the food supplier for ever.

        And, quite often, sued for damages, and won.

42 /  Apple with bite taken out. Maggot wriggles.

        How would you feel, taking a nice, juicy mouthful of something appetising, only to find half a maggot .... ?

43 / Views of apples.

        With fresh fruit, perhaps you could argue that there's no way of knowing.

44 / Slice into an factory- baked apple pie. Reveal a cigarette end.

        But with processed food, there's no possible defence. So don't let it happen. One day, you could be the victim.

45 / More horror finds in food.

        Most food premises have strict rules involving clean areas, protective clothing, hair nets, maintenance cycles and many other things, to help to make sure that no foreign objects get into our food.

46 /  Various food-factory reminder-signs.

        Do be sure you know the rules that apply in your workplace; and make sure that you stick to them. They are there for good reasons.

47 /  Views of mould, yeast, bacteria and viruses are combined to form a background.

        While our food is at risk from these very obvious and visible hazards, it is also very much at risk from several kinds of ...

48 /  add; MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION

        ... unseen enemies; tiny micro-organisms, too small to see except in vast numbers or through a microscope, and so difficult to detect and prevent.

49 /  Other bacteria under microscope.

        There are countless different kinds of micro-organisms, and they get just about everywhere.

50 / Other bacteria under microscope.

        They live in water, on plants, in soil, on our food; and in and on our bodies.

51 / Girl with fresh, clean hair. She pulls out a hair, and puts it into a petri-dish with a nutrient.

        Given favourable conditions, they can multiply very quickly.

52 / Show bacteria dividing, yeasts budding, moulds (growing).

        They reproduce by each one dividing into two, and can double their numbers every ten minutes.

53 /

Mix to same petri-dish; the hair now covered in signs of bacterial growth. Caption indicates time passed.

54 / Man puts clean-looking hands into petri-dish.

        They excrete wastes in the process. Some of these wastes are highly toxic to us, and are not destroyed even by the most thorough cooking.

55 / Mix to same petri-dish. Signs of bacterial growth. Caption indicates time passed.

56 / Time-lapse: bacterial growth.

        Given the right conditions, one microbe alone can multiply and become a colony of tens of millions in just a few hours.

        And micro-organisms can and do get into our food, in a variety of ways.

57 /  View of raw materials.

        All raw foods will carry some when they arrive at the factory.

58 / View of pest contamination.

        As we've seen, if pests are allowed access they often carry micro- organisms onto food.

59 / View of food room hazards.

        If food areas are dirty or unhygienic, micro-organisms from working surfaces, utensils, the atmosphere and other hazards can get into the food.

        In particular, micro-organisms from raw food can linger on surfaces, utensils or hands, and can then get onto ready-processed food or food containers, leading to a high risk of illness.

        This cross-contamination is a prime cause of problems, and is why so much care must be taken to keep raw and ready-processed foods separate.

60 / People working in a food area.

        And, of course, we ourselves are also a prime source of risk.

        People are often the most hazardous part of a hygienic food area. Even if we do everything possible to minimise all of these risks, one way or another a few micro-organisms may well get into the food.

61 / Bacteria; close up. Add caption: Bacteria Conditions for growth

        So under what conditions can those few microbes multiply? Like us, to flourish they need food, moisture, warmth and time.

62 / Views of food poisoning bacteria through a microscope.

        Most food poisoning incidents in Britain are caused by bacteria; tiny, single cell organisms, one of the most primitive forms of life.

63 / Salmonella bacteria under microscope.

        Only a few kinds of bacteria cause food poisoning. If harmful bacteria get into our food, and are allowed to multiply, we get sick. Sometimes very sick.

64 / Display of high-risk foods.

        They live on many of the same foods that we do; and particularly high- protein foods like meat, dairy products and cooked rice.

65 / Display of dried foods.

        Many foods contain plenty of the necessary moisture; some of those can be effectively dried or freeze-dried, so denying any that are present the chance to multiply.

66 / Graphic: temperature zone, with cooking and freezing symbols at the ends.

        Many micro-organisms can grow well at any temperature from around 5oC to around 60oC - the danger zone; so food processing frequently involves either refrigerating or heating.

67 / Add pasteurisation.

        Pasteurisation, heating foods to the low 70soC for a short, carefully controlled period, kills most micro-organisms; pasteurised food must then be refrigerated.

68 / Add cooking.

        Thorough cooking, too, kills off most micro-organisms; though of course unless care is taken cooked food can be re-contaminated later.

68 A / Graphic temperature indicator.

        And some bacteria can survive even the fiercest cooking by forming protective spores, which then begin to flourish again as soon as conditions allow. Only sterilisation kills all microbes and their spores.

68 B / Add Danger Zone indication.

        So foods should normally be allowed to stay in the danger zone, the temperature band between roc and around 60oC, for as little time as is practical.

69 / Add refrigeration.

        Refrigeration does not kill micro-organisms but it does slow their growth, so that foods kept in a fridge at below roc stay safe for much longer.

69 A / Add freezing.

        For safe longer-term storage, it's important to stop all microbe activity completely; freezing foods and keeping them at minus 18oC or colder is an effective way of achieving this.

70 / Views of packed foods with preservatives marked on labelling.

        The many other methods for prolonging shelf life include using preservatives, usually in combination with some form of sealed packaging; and also irradiation.

71 / Supermarket customer examines use-by dates, and chooses a pack.

        For the customer, use-by dates for high risk products, and best-before dates for lower -risk products, help us to be confident that food is safe to eat. But putting the dates on in itself does nothing at all to make food safe.

72 / In an open-air cafe-restaurant, many customers happily eat, drink and talk.

        It's up to everyone involved to make sure that all due care is taken at every stage of food preparation, to see that food is not exposed to the risk of contamination, and that all appropriate preservation procedures have been followed.

73 / Close-up of an attractive dish. Turn into graphic background, and add caption: FOOD HYGIENE

        It's hard to fight an enemy you can't see; so how can we as food handlers be sure that we are keeping food safe?

Add: Keep Microbes Out

        Microbes can't move around far by themselves; they have to be carried from place to place on our hands, or utensils, working surfaces, our clothes, or maybe in water droplets when we sneeze, or by pests.

74 / Workers in busy food area. ....

75 / Food area: worker cleans up.

        Microbes can breed wherever they can find a food supply; so regular, thorough cleaning up is essential.

76 / Worker sweeps up food debris and deposits into lidded bin.

        Untidy heaps of peelings or waste food attract vermin and pests, and allow micro-organisms to breed.

        So avoid them in your workplace; and make sure that any waste bins lids are kept firmly closed.

77 / Pan over food preparation surface; worker starts cleaning cycle.

        Because micro-organisms can breed in any dirt or grease left on utensils or working surfaces, thorough cleaning is also needed for all surfaces and any pipe work that come into contact with food.

78 / Caption build-up: also show relevant action.

        This involves a pre-clean, to remove any loose dirt. Then a thorough wash with hot water and detergent, to strip off the grease layers which can harbour micro-organisms.

        But detergent by itself does not kill micro-organisms; for this purpose a food-industry approved disinfectant must be used.

        Then finally all traces of chemicals must be washed away with a clean-water rinse, so that no detergent or disinfectant traces taint our food.

        This same cleaning cycle applies equally to areas cleaned by hand, and to enclosed pipe -wok and containers cleaned in place by special equipment.

79 / Show trace monitoring, collection of swab sample for lab.

        In many food areas, surfaces must be regularly tested for any sign of contamination, and this can involve both on-site monitoring equipment, and regularly sending swabs for laboratory analysis.

80 / Show "clean" lab report.

        This regular, thorough cleaning routine, applied to all food areas and contact surfaces, minimises the risk of contamination from the food environment.

81 / Close-ups of workers in food area.

        Then all that remains is to be sure that we ourselves don't bring in any contamination

        Each and every food handler is fully responsible in law for his or her own personal contribution to food safety.

82 / Add caption: First duty - Good personal appearance

        Your first responsibility is to be clean and tidy at work. So good personal and dental hygiene are essential.

83 / Cartoon: dirty scruffy food worker

        Obviously you don't want any bits of clothing or jewellery dropping off  into your work; so do avoid all jewellery, hair clips, tie pins, badges and the like.

84 / Cartoon: false dangling (male) eyelashes, earring.

        Since nail varnish is prone to chipping and flaking, it must never be worn; or hands must always be gloved.

85 / cartoon

        And of course, whoever you want to impress, go easy on the perfume or after-shave at work. The smell can taint the food.

86 / Caption: Second duty - Good personal habits.

        Your second area of responsibility is for your personal habits.

87 / Close-up of smoker, showing close hand-to-mouth contact.

        Because of the abundant microbes on and around the mouth, nose and hair, eating, smoking or touching mouth, nose or hair must be avoided when you are in a food area.

88 / Caption: Third duty  - Wear protective clothing

        Your third responsibility is to wear protective clothing, and wear it properly.

89 /  Cartoon of protective clothing, incorrectly worn.

        There's no point having sealed overalls with no outside pockets if you stick on badges or pens, or even microbe-laden handkerchiefs, which can drop into or otherwise contaminate the food.

90 / View of protective clothing, worn well.

        Remember the clothing is to protect the food from any contamination from you.

91 / View of hair covering, beard snood.

        Hats and beard snoods aren't just for decoration; they are supposed to keep your hair out of someone else's meal. It's up to you to make sure that they do.

92 / Caption: Fourth duty - Personal health

        Your fourth duty is pretty obvious too. Don't work with food when you're ill.

93 /  Cartoon; person sneezing over food.

        If you are sick or ill, you must report it to your supervisor before you start your shift; you normally won't be allowed to work in a food area until you are well again.

94 /  Show approved plaster packet.

        Any cuts, boils, spots or sores should also be covered with a special plaster while you're at work. These are brightly coloured and metal-detectable, so that they can be easily spotted if they do get into food.

94 A / Show approved plaster being applied.

        There's a simple trick to putting them on properly; make sure that you link the two adhesive ends, sticky side to sticky side,  like this, and it's virtually impossible for these plasters to drop off by mistake.

95 /

Caption: Fifth duty  - Hand hygiene

        The fifth and last duty is to keep your hands clean; thoroughly, hygienically clean.

96 / Show hands washing.

        That means vigorous washing with hot water and non-perfumed, bactericidal soap; and scrubbing out under your nails every time.

        Then a good rinse in clean running water.

        Then dry hygienically, with a disposable paper towel or a sterilised roller towel.

96 A / HOT AIR DRYERS IN USE or graphic

        If you are using hot air dryers, it's very important to ensure you keep your hands there long enough to get thoroughly dry.

96 B / Bactericidal spray in use.

        In high-risk areas, spray your hands with a special bactericidal rinse after washing.

97 /  Wide-angle views of various "hand hazards".

        It also means washing your hands frequently, any time they might have become contaminated.

        That means whenever you first enter a food room; before touching food; after any time you touch your mouth, or nose or hair; of course after any visit to the toilet; or after handling waste food.

98 / Show worker washing gloves.

        If you work in protective gloves, you must only use them for handling food.

        Do make sure they are clean before touching any food; unless they are brand new, wash and spray them thoroughly; and from a hygiene point of view, treat your gloves just as you would your hands.

        Remember, the gloves are there to protect the food from any bacteria on you, and not to protect your hands from the food.

99 / Shoppers in supermarket.

        Is it so much to ask, that we take all due care to see that the food we supply is safe? Well the law doesn't think so.

        If our customers are to enjoy safe, wholesome food that we'd all like to eat, we have to do three things in particular.

100 / View of pests.

        Keep all pests out of food areas; and report any signs of pest infestation for an expert to deal with.

101 / Overlay repeat of snail in lemonade.

        Make sure that no loose bits or foreign objects can get into our food.

102 / Repeat view of hand washing.

        And meet our personal hygiene responsibilities, in full, every time we work with food. Every single one of us.

103 /  Repeat of Bad Apple sequence.

        After all, it only takes one sloppy worker, one dirty, careless food handler to poison things for everyone else. Don't let it be you.

104 / Scroll list of personal hygiene duties. Music   / Ends

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